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In chemistry, a chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. It can be solid, liquid, plasma, and gas.

Chemical substances are often called “pure” to set them apart from mixtures. A common example of a chemical substance is pure water; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory. Other chemical substance commonly encountered in pure form is diamond, gold, tablet salt and refined sugar. However, simple or seemingly pure substances found in nature can in fact be mixtures of chemical substances. For example, tap water may contain small amount of dissolved sodium chloride and compound containing iron, iron, calcium and many other chemical substances.

Chemical substance exists as solids, liquids, gases or plasma, and may change between these phases of matter with changes in temperature or pressure. Chemical reactions convert one chemical substance into another.

Forms of energy, such as light and heat, are not considered to be matter, and thus they are not “substances” in this regard.